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Overthrowing Other People's Governments: The Master List


August 23, 2018
William Blum / William Blum.org

Historical instances of the United States covertly overthrowing, or attempting to overthrow, a foreign government since the Second World War. (* indicates successful ouster of a government.) A list of Washington's attempts to assassinate foreign leaders. A list of revolutions thwarted by secret US interventions.

https://williamblum.org/essays/read/overthrowing-other-peoples-governments-the-master-list



Overthrowing Other People's Governments:
The Master List

William Blum / William Blum.org

Instances of the United States overthrowing, or attempting to overthrow, a foreign government since the Second World War.
(* indicates successful ouster of a government)

* China 1949 to early 1960s
* Albania 1949-53
* East Germany 1950s
* Iran 1953 *
* Guatemala 1954 *
* Costa Rica mid-1950s
* Syria 1956-7
* Egypt 1957
* Indonesia 1957-8
* British Guiana 1953-64 *
* Iraq 1963 *
* North Vietnam 1945-73
* Cambodia 1955-70 *
* Laos 1958 *, 1959 *, 1960 *
* Ecuador 1960-63 *
* Congo 1960 *
* France 1965
* Brazil 1962-64 *
* Dominican Republic 1963 *
* Cuba 1959 to present
* Bolivia 1964 *
* Indonesia 1965 *
* Ghana 1966 *
* Chile 1964-73 *
* Greece 1967 *
* Costa Rica 1970-71
* Bolivia 1971 *
* Australia 1973-75 *
* Angola 1975, 1980s
* Zaire 1975
* Portugal 1974-76 *
* Jamaica 1976-80 *
* Seychelles 1979-81
* Chad 1981-82 *
* Grenada 1983 *
* South Yemen 1982-84
* Suriname 1982-84
* Fiji 1987 *
* Libya 1980s
* Nicaragua 1981-90 *
* Panama 1989 *
* Bulgaria 1990 *
* Albania 1991 *
* Iraq 1991
* Afghanistan 1980s *
* Somalia 1993
* Yugoslavia 1999-2000 *
* Ecuador 2000 *
* Afghanistan 2001 *
* Venezuela 2002 *
* raq 2003 *
* Haiti 2004 *
* Somalia 2007 to present
* Honduras 2009 *
* Libya 2011 *
* Syria 2012
* Ukraine 2014 *

Q: Why will there never be a coup d'état in Washington?
A: Because there's no American embassy there.



US Government Assassination Plots

The US bombing of Iraq, June 26, 1993, in retaliation for an alleged Iraqi plot to assassinate former president George Bush, "was essential," said President Clinton, "to send a message to those who engage in state-sponsored terrorism . . . and to affirm the expectation of civilized behavior among nations."

https://williamblum.org/essays/read/us-government-assassination-plots
Following is a list of prominent foreign individuals whose assassination (or planning for same) the United States has been involved in since the end of the Second World War. The list does not include several assassinations in various parts of the world carried out by anti-Castro Cubans employed by the CIA and headquartered in the United States.

* 1949 -- Kim Koo, Korean opposition leader
* 1950s -- CIA/Neo-Nazi hit list of more than 200 political figures in West Germany to be "put out of the way" in the event of a Soviet invasion
* 1950s -- Chou En-lai, Prime minister of China, several attempts on his life
* 1950s, 1962 -- Sukarno, President of Indonesia
* 1951 -- Kim Il Sung, Premier of North Korea
* 1953 -- Mohammed Mossadegh, Prime Minister of Iran
* 1950s (mid) -- Claro M. Recto, Philippines opposition leader
* 1955 -- Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India
* 1957 -- Gamal Abdul Nasser, President of Egypt
* 1959, 1963, 1969 -- Norodom Sihanouk, leader of Cambodia
* 1960 -- Brig. Gen. Abdul Karim Kassem, leader of Iraq
* 1950s-70s -- José Figueres, President of Costa Rica, two attempts on his life
* 1961 -- Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier, leader of Haiti
* 1961 -- Patrice Lumumba, Prime Minister of the Congo (Zaire)
* 1961 -- Gen. Rafael Trujillo, leader of Dominican Republic
* 1963 -- Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam
* 1960s-70s -- Fidel Castro, President of Cuba, many attempts on his life
* 1960s -- Raul Castro, high official in government of Cuba
* 1965 -- Francisco Caamaño, Dominican Republic opposition leader
* 1965-6 -- Charles de Gaulle, President of France
* 1967 -- Che Guevara, Cuban leader
* 1970 -- Salvador Allende, President of Chile
* 1970 -- Gen. Rene Schneider, Commander-in-Chief of Army, Chile
* 1970s, 1981 -- General Omar Torrijos, leader of Panama
* 1972 -- General Manuel Noriega, Chief of Panama Intelligence
* 1975 -- Mobutu Sese Seko, President of Zaire
* 1976 -- Michael Manley, Prime Minister of Jamaica
* 1980-1986 -- Muammar Qaddafi, leader of Libya, several plots and attempts upon his life
* 1982 -- Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of Iran
* 1983 -- Gen. Ahmed Dlimi, Moroccan Army commander
* 1983 -- Miguel d'Escoto, Foreign Minister of Nicaragua
* 1984 -- The nine comandantes of the Sandinista National Directorate
* 1985 -- Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah, Lebanese Shiite leader (80 people killed in the attempt)
* 1991 -- Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq
* 1993 -- Mohamed Farah Aideed, prominent clan leader of Somalia
* 1998, 2001-2 -- Osama bin Laden, leading Islamic militant
* 1999 -- Slobodan Milosevic, President of Yugoslavia
* 2002 -- Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Afghan Islamic leader and warlord
* 2003 -- Saddam Hussein and his two sons
* 2011 -- Muammar Qaddafi, leader of Libya

1. Washington Post, June 27, 1993


Suppressing Revolt and Revolution

Instances since the Second World War of the United States attempting to suppress a populist or nationalist movement.

* China -- 1945-49
* France -- 1947 *
* Italy -- 1947-1970s *
* Greece -- 1947-49 *
* Philippines -- 1945-53 *
* Korea -- 1945-53 *
* Haiti -- 1959 *
* Laos -- 1957-73
* Vietnam -- 1961-73
* Thailand -- 1965-73 *
* Peru -- 1965 *
* Dominican Republic -- 1965 *
* Uruguay -- 1969-72 *
* South Africa -- 1960s-1980s
* East Timor -- 1975-1999 *
* Philippines -- 1970s-1990s *
* El Salvador -- 1980-92 *
* Colombia -- 1990s to early 2000s *
* Peru -- 1997 *
* Iraq -- 2003 to present *

* successful suppression of the movement

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